R.Gordon, 1985. The Coccinelidae (Coleoptera) of America North of Mexico. J. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 93:1-912.
The Nine-spotted Ladybug used to be one of the most commonly encountered ladybugs throughout its historic range (shaded area). In recent years, it has declined to the point which it is now only infrequently encountered.
ABOUT "BENEFICAL" INSECTS:
An example is how the Seven-spotted Ladybug affected the native Nine-spotted Ladybug. The Nine-spotted Ladybug was the most common ladybug in New York state until the 1940s. Then its population rapidly dropped. This was likely caused by the introduction of the closely related Seven-spotted Ladybug. The Nine-spotted Ladybug is the official New York state insect. Yet, it has not been collected in the state in recent decades. Over 100 species of ladybugs have been intentionally introduced to North America. Almost all ladybug species are predators of aphids, so they are given the label “beneficial.” Many native ladybug species, however, are in decline. This is thought to be the result of these introductions.
© 2006 Joyce Gross
Today, the Honey Bee is uniquely beneficial to humans. It is the most important managed crop pollinator throughout most of the world. The recent concern about reductions in Honey Bee numbers, as a result of parasitic mites and Colony Collapse Disorder, is a major concern that scientists are trying to unravel.
Kevin D. Arvin, Bugwood.org
Female Gypsy Moths cannot fly. It spreads mostly by humans moving vehicles or equipment with egg masses laid on them to other areas. Egg masses may contain 100 to 1,500 eggs.
Caterpillars disperse short distances through ballooning, riding in the wind on strands of silk.
Peter K. Ducey, SUNY Cortland
Earthworms: Friend or Foe?
Red Worm, Trout Worm (Lumbricus rubellus)
Nightcrawler (Lumbricus terrestris)
Octagonal-tail Worm (Dendrobaena octaedra)
Crazy Worms, Jumpers (Amynthas sp.)
Many introduced species have been around so long, people
believe they are native. Glaciers from the last ice age wiped
out earthworms in parts of North America. Earthworms are
suspected to have come to North America over the last 500 years
from Europe and Asia. They have several means of introduction
and spread. They may have been transported accidentally in soil
with plants and in ship ballast.
They can also be intentionally introduced to assist agriculture and composting, or for bait. Earthworms break down leaf litter, recycle soil nutrients, and create soil burrows. Good for gardens and agriculture, these same activities can be harmful in native forests and fields. Earthworms may alter forest floor soil habitats by eating too much leaf litter. This might change which plants and animals can live in these areas.
Peter K. Ducey, SUNY Cortland
An Invasive Earthworm Predator: Broadhead Planarian
Scott Bauer, USDA
Multi-spotted Asian Ladybug
The Multi-spotted Asian Ladybug overwinters indoors and is considered a nuisance. It can gather by the hundreds, staining walls and ceilings. In western New York, the adults are known to nibble on grapes, probably for the water content. It will occasionally bite people.