The Adirondack Lowlands contains a diverse range of meta-igneous and meta-sedimentary rocks. The oldest lithologic unit is the Lower Marble formation consisting of calc-silicates, quartzites, gneisses, and tourmalinites. The Popple Hill gneiss composed of metamorphosed mudstones, slates, sandstones, and volcanogenic sequences overlies the lower marble. The last unit, the Upper Marble formation is a sequence of shallow-water carbonates, evaporates and talc schists that lies upon the Popple Hill gneiss. Various mafic rocks are distributed throughout the three main rock units. The rocks of the Lowlands were deformed and metamorphosed at a temperature of 600º to 650º C and pressure of 6 to 7 kilobars. The combined actions of fluids, metamorphism and igneous processes in the Adirondack Lowlands generated a varied and beautiful suite of minerals that have long attracted the worldwide attention of scientists and mineral collectors.

Selected references

Beck, L. C. 1842. Mineralogy of New York. Albany, NY: W. and A. White and J. Visscher.

Chamberlain, S. C., Robinson, G. W. and Smith, A. C. 1987. The occurrence of wollastonite and titanite, Natural Bridge, Lewis County, NY. Rocks & Minerals, V. 62, p. 78-89.

Jensen, D. 1978. Minerals of New York State. Rochester, NY: Ward Press.

Robinson, G. W. 1973. Dekalb diopside. Lapidary Journal, V. 27, p. 85-86.

Robinson, G. W. Famous mineral localities: Dekalb, New York. Mineralogical Record, V. 21, p. 535-541.

Robinson, G. W., Dix, G. R. and Chamberlain, S. C. 2001. Famous mineral localities: Rossie, New York. Mineralogical Record, V. 32, p. 273-293.

Robinson, G. W., Dix, G. R., Chamberlain, S. C. and Hall, C. 2002. The Rossie lead mines: A new look at an old locality. Rocks and Minerals, V. 77, p. 243-244.

Robinson, G. W. and Chamberlain, S. C. 2008. Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, V. 82, p. 472-483.

Smyth, C. H. 1896. The genetic relations of certain minerals of northern New York. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, V 15, p. 26-270.

Whitlock, H. P. 1903. New York mineral localities. New York State Bulletin 70.



The New York State Geological Survey (NYSGS) is a bureau of
the New York State Museum in the New York State Education Department.