Few minerals of native elements are present in New York State localities. The most common mineral is graphite. It occurrs in the Adirondacks and Hudson Highlands. Some of the old localities are still opened for collecting. Sulfur, mostly of biogenic origin, is found generally in association with carbonates, celestine, and gypsum in Paleozoic formations, but also in the sphalerite and galena deposits from the Lowlands. Native gold and copper are very rare. Native silver was identified in thin/polished sections from the Balmat - Edwards mining district, St. Lawrence County.

Selected references

Alling, H. L. 1917. The Adirondack graphite deposits. New York State Museum Bulletin 199.

Bastin, E. S. 1910. Origin of certain Adirondack graphite deposits. Economic Geology, V. 5, p. 134–57.

Beck, L. C. 1842. Mineralogy of New York. Albany, NY: W. and A. White and J. Visscher. Facsimile reprint by the Rochester Academy of Science, 1987.

Clinton, G. W. 1828. Notice of the graphite of Ticonderoga. Transactions of the Albany Institute, V.1, p. 233–35.

Hall, F. 1823. Notice of the plumbago of Ticonderoga. American Journal of Science, V. 6, p. 178.

Jasczak, J., Chamberlain, S. C., Robinson, G. W. 2009. The graphites of New York: scientific and aesthetic surprises. Rocks & Minerals, p. 502-519.

Kemp, J. F. 1890. Minerals near Port Henry, N.Y. American Journal of Science, V.62, p. 62–64.

Lauf, R. J., Pasto, A. E. 1983. Graphite from the Lead Hill mine, Ticonderoga, New York. Mineralogical Record, V. 14, p. 25–30.





The New York State Geological Survey (NYSGS) is a bureau of
the New York State Museum in the New York State Education Department.