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cover Current Research in New York Archaeology: A.D. 700–1300

edited by Christina B. Rieth and John P. Hart



THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
Regents of The University

MERRYL H. TISCH, Chancellor, B.A., M.A., Ed.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York
MILTON L. COFIELD, Vice Chancellor, B.S., M.B.A., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester
ROBERT M. BENNETT, Chancellor Emeritus, B.A., M.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tonawanda
JAMES C. DAWSON, A.A., B.A., M.S., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plattsburgh
ANTHONY S. BOTTAR, B.A., J.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Syracuse
GERALDINE D. CHAPEY, B.A., M.A., Ed.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Belle Harbor
HARRY PHILLIPS, 3RD, B.A., M.S.F.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hartsdale
JAMES R. TALLON, JR., B.A., M.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binghamton
ROGER TILLES, B.A., J.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Great Neck
CHARLES R. BENDIT, B.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manhattan
BETTY A. ROSA, B.A., M.S. in Ed., M.S. in Ed., M.Ed., Ed.D. . . . . . . . . . . Bronx
LESTER W. YOUNG, JR., B.S., M.S., Ed. D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oakland Gardens
CHRISTINE D. CEA, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Staten Island
WADE S. NORWOOD, B.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rochester
JAMES O. JACKSON, B.S., M.A., PH.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Albany
KATHLEEN M. CASHIN, B.S., M.S., Ed.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brooklyn
JAMES E. COTTRELL, B.S., M.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York

Commissioner of Education
President of The University of the State of New York
JOHN B. KING JR.

Deputy Commissioner for Cultural Education
JEFFREY W. CANNELL

Director of the New York State Museum
CLIFFORD A. SIEGFRIED

Director, Research and Collections Division
JOHN P. HART


The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its educational programs, services and activities. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including braille, large print or audio tape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of nondiscrimination should be directed to the Department's Office for Diversity, Ethics, and Access, Room 530, Education Building, Albany, NY 12234.




Current Research in New York Archaeology: A.D. 700–1300
edited by
Christina B. Rieth
and
John P. Hart

 

New York State Museum Record 2



2011 The New York State Education Department
Published in the United States of America
ISSN 2156-6178
ISBN 1-55557-255-3 iv

NYSM logo


 

Preface

CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Current Research in New York Archaeology: A.D. 700–1300
Christina B. Rieth and John P. Hart

CHAPTER 2.
The Carpenter Brook Site, Social Setting, and Early Late Woodland Ceramic Vessel Variation in Central New York
Donald A. Smith

CHAPTER 3.
Additional Evidence for cal. Seventh-Century A.D. Maize Consumption at the Kipp Island Site, New York
John P. Hart, Lisa M. Anderson, and Robert S. Feranec

CHAPTER 4.
Trace Element Analysis of Lithic Artifacts from the Trapps Gap Site
Christina B. Rieth and L. Lewis Johnson

CHAPTER 5.
A Small Site in Coxsackie, Circa A.D. 1200: Some Ecological Issues Concerning Its Age and Location
Edward V. Curtin

CHATPER 6.
A Middle Woodland Pottery Stamp and Associated Middle Woodland Ceramics from the Indian Hill Site, Wawarsing, New York
Joseph E. Diamond and Susan O’Connell Stewart

CHATPER 7.
The History of the Collared Rim in the Finger Lakes, New York
Hetty Jo Brumbach

CHAPTER 8.
The Death of Owasco—Redux
John P. Hart



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1. Locations of Carpenter Brook and the village sites used in this study.

Figure 2.2. The Carpenter Brook deposit during Ritchie’s excavation.

Figure 2.3. Reconstructed rims of Carpenter Brook vessels.

Figure 2.4. Bear mandible from Carpenter Brook.

Figure 2.5. Clay phallic effigy (probably smoking pipe) from Carpenter Brook.

Figure 2.6. Changing interpretations of the age of Carpenter Brook.

Figure 2.7. Frequency distribution of vessel orifice diameters from Carpenter Brook, Bates, Maxon-Derby, and Sackett.

Figure 2.8. Frequency distribution of vessel wall thickness values for Carpenter Brook and the villages.

Figure 2.9. Scatterplot of vessel diameter vs. wall thickness for Carpenter Brook and the villages, also showing LOWESS smoothing.

Figure 2.10. Carpenter Brook sherds with irregular interior surfaces.

Figure 2.11. Carpenter Brook sherd with an additional applied layer of clay obscuring the original vessel surface.

Figure 2.12. Frequency distribution of decoration height for the Carpenter Brook and village vessels.

Figure 2.13. Scatterplot of size (‘height’) vs. complexity (number of bands) of the decoration on the Carpenter Brook and village vessels, also showing LOWESS smoothing.

Figure 3.1. Location of the Kipp Island site.
Figure 3.2. Plan map of Kipp Island 4 cemetery.

Figure 3.3. Calibrated 2σ radiocarbon probability distributions for four Kipp Island components plotted against the radiocarbon curve.

Figure 4.1. Photograph of projectile points recovered from the Trapps Gap site in Ulster County, New York.

Figure 4.2. Map showing the location of the Trapps Gap site and other sites located along the Shawangunk Ridge.

Figure 4.3. XRF spectra showing channel counts for lithic artifact (Artifact # 35) recovered from the Trapps Gap site.

Figure 4.4. Map showing location of chert sources.

Figure 4.5. Discriminant function analysis results showing five groups identified within the Trapps Gap lithic sample.

Figure 5.1. Concentration 23B.1 location in Coxsackie.

Figure 5.2. View of the Kalkberg Ridge from the western side of the Greene Business and Technology Park study area. An Indian trail (the Catskill Path) ran north-south at the base of the ridge.

Figure 5.3. Concentration 23B.1 excavation plan.

Figure 5.4. Concentration 23B.1, view of excavation block in progress, looking northwest toward Kalkberg Ridge.

Figure 5.5. Concentration 23B.1, view of excavation in progress, looking east.

Figure 5.6. Concentration 23B.1, distributions of total artifact density and brown organic stratum.

Figure 5.7. Concentration 23B.1, plan view of archaeological features.

Figure 5.8. Concentration 23B.1, detail of inferred shelter area.

Figure 5.9. Concentration 23B.1, west profile of Feature 6.

Figure 5.10. Concentration 23B.1, stemmed projectile point with base reworked into graver.

Figure 5.11. Concentration 23B.1, pottery density distribution (right), with feature distribution for comparison (left).

Figure 5.12. Concentration 23B.1, fire cracked rock distribution (right), with feature distribution for comparison (left).

Figure 5.13. Concentration 23B.1, utilized flake distribution (right), with feature distribution for comparison (left).

Figure 5.14. View of corn growing on somewhat poorly drained Kingsbury and Rhinebeck series soil in Coxsackie, August 2010.

Figure 6.1. Indian Hill excavation, 1976.

Figure 6.2. Vessel #1. Jacks Reef Corded.

Figure 6.3. Vessel #2. Wickham Corded.

Figure 6.4. Vessel #3. Vinette Dentate.

Figure 6.5. Vessel #4. Vinette Dentate.

Figure 6.6. Vessel #5. Ford Net-marked.

Figure 6.7. Vessel #5. Ford Net-marked.

Figure 6.8. Pottery stamp on left. Clay slab on right.

Figure 7.1. Collared vessel with four castellations, Jefferson County, New York, ca. A.D. 1450–1500 (NYSM).

Figure 7.2. Rim sherd (NYSM 40028-1) of the type Vinette Dentate from the Vinette site, Oswego County, dated ca. cal. 300 B.C.

Figure 7.3. Upper rim of a vessel with what appears to be a collar but in profile is a much everted lip.

Figure 7.4. Vessel from the Vinette site, ca. cal. A.D. 40, NYSM 40147-21, assigned to the type Vinette Dentate.
 
Figure 7.5. Vessel from the Vinette site, ca. cal. A.D. 40, NYSM 40069-1, assigned to the type Vinette Dentate.

Figure 7.6. Vessel from the Cottage site, NYSM 44469-55, assigned to the type Point Peninsula Rocker-stamped.

Figure 7.7. Vessel from the Cottage site, dated ca. cal. A.D. 200, NYSM 44469-28, assigned to the type Point Peninsula Rocker-stamped.

Figure 7.8. Refitted partial vessel from the Wickham site, Oswego County, NYSM 40170, assigned to the type Owasco Corded Horizontal.

Figure 7.9. A vessel from the Felix site, Onondaga County, dated ca. cal. A.D. 490, NYSM 40727-24, 25, with an incipient collar formed by adding a fillet or extra lute of clay to thicken the rim.

Figure 7.10. Vessel from the Kipp Island site, Seneca County, NYSM 41119-8.

Figure 7.11. Vessel from the Felix site, Onondaga County, dated ca. cal. A.D. 650, NYSM 40767-2.

Figure 7.12. Vessel from the Hunter’s Home site, Wayne County, dated ca. cal. A.D. 820, NYSM 48582-8.

Figure 7.13. Vessel from the Hunter’s Home site, Wayne County, dated ca. cal. A.D. 820, NYSM 48584-1).

Figure 7.14. Vessel from the Felix site, dated ca. cal. A.D. 1030, NYSM 40697-4, 11.

Figure 7.15. Vessel from the Kelso site, dated ca. cal. A.D. 1400, NYSM 42581-1.

Figure 8.1. Graphical representation of individual cooking residue dates by pottery type and Ritchie’s (1969) culture history phases for sites assigned to Ritchie’s (1969) Early and Middle Woodland stages.

Figure 8.2. Bar graph of the proportion of sherds with coil breaks in pottery assemblages by date.

Figure 8.3. Scatter plot of average wall thickness for sherds by date.

Figure 8.4. A scatter plot of average wall thickness in mm divided by diameter in cm by time.

Figure 8.5. A scatter plot of Jaccard similarity values by time.



LIST OF TABLES


Table 2.1. Mean Reconstructed Vessel Orifice Diameters for Carpenter Brook and the Village Sites.

Table 2.2. Mean Vessel Wall Thicknesses for Carpenter Brook and the Village Sites.

Table 2.3. Mean Exterior Decoration Height and Average Number of Exterior Decorative Bands for Carpenter Brook and Village Vessels.

Table 3.1. Radiocarbon Dates from the Kipp Island Site.

Table 3.2. Numbers of Permanent and Deciduous Teeth and Caries Examined from the Kipp Island Site.

Table 3.3. Adult Kipp Island Caries Frequency by Tooth Type Compared with Sites in New York.

Table 3.4. Isotope Data from Third Molars of Three Interments at Kipp Island.

Table 4.1. Summary of Lithic Samples Collected.

Table 4.2. Grouping of Lithic Materials from the Trapps Gap Site.

Table 4.3. Principal Components Analysis for Samples.

Table 5.1. Dynamic Cycles of the Upper Hudson Late Woodland.

Table 5.2. Concentration 23B.1 Radiocarbon Dates (Obtained from Feature 5).

Table 5.3. Concentration 23B.1 Stone Tool Assemblage.

 






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