by Geoffrey N. Stein
Chapter 2: THE AVIATION BUSINESS
“Dan Hungerford built his own small plane which he flew from various places in Chemung County. His favorite place was a piece of land that is now included in the Chemung County airport. He said it was the best place in the county from which to fly.”22
Keith Marvin, who wrote extensively about the Hungerford brothers, noted that Daniel Hungerford was interested in aviation as early as 1901. A newspaper clip from 1965 suggests Hungerford’s interest was piqued by a “borrowed book, entitled The Boy’s Book of Inventions printed in London.”23 Hungerford himself wrote in 1964 that he “began studying” aviation in 1901. He said the inspirational book belonged to “a neighbor boy - a Christmas present to him by an aunt, the book is lost and I haven’t been able to find a copy since. I did find -1/2 of a copy projecting from a bale of paper and books on a truck…”24
By 1910 Daniel and Floyd had built a two-cylinder, opposed aircraft engine. The Sunday Telegram for September 11, 1927, noted that in 1909 the Hungerfords built the first airplane engine in Elmira. “It is a 30 H.P. engine that actually flew an airplane. It loks [sic] as much like a modern airplane engine as a sewing machine would. But it flew!” An undated newspaper clip, probably from 1913, describes the engine, “entirely of his [Daniel Hungerford’s] manufacture and is considered much superior to some of the large ones. It is small and has more power.”
Cliff R. Towner, who knew Dan Hungerford in early 1940s, recalled “seeing pictures of Dan and Glenn Curtis [sic] at Hammondsport when Dan was Glenn’s Chief Mechanic on his first ‘Flying Boat.’25 Jon Elan Steen, Hungerford’s great-nephew, said William Hungerford told Elan Steen that “Dan worked for Curtiss Smith [sic] Aircraft in his early years and that was how he first became interested in flying.”26
Glenn H. Curtiss by 1909 had become well known as an aviator as well as an inventive manufacturer of engines and airplanes. Among Curtiss airplane types, the “first successful flying boat” arrived in 1912. Author Louis S. Casey’s Curtiss [,] The Hammondsport Era 1907–1915 documented the history of Curtiss airplane construction. While Hungerford who lived in Elmira only a few miles from Hammondsport, Casey’s did not mention him among several Curtiss employees and colleagues.27
The August 7, 1955 edition of the Elmira Sunday Telegram reported that on August 13, 1913 Daniel and Floyd had acquired a Bleriot Type XI monoplane built by August Rauschenbusch of Greenville, Pennsylvania. Such an airplane in 1909, piloted by Louis Bleriot, had become the first to fly across the English Channel. Bleriot himself built and sold Type XI monoplanes while other manufacturers, such as Rauschenbusch, built copies.
The Telegram in 1955 continued, “The motor in the plane was broken when acquired by the Hungerford brothers. They made patterns and had the necessary castings made at the Weller Foundry in Horseheads and the Sayre Stamping Works. These were welded into place by William T. Shoemaker….The Hungerfords and Frank Edic…also converted the craft into a biplane. They later sold it to a Capt. Walters of Lumberton, N.C.”
A clip from an Elmira newspaper in 1913 or 191428 reportedly shows a photo of Daniel Hungerford taxiing the Bleriot “in a field in the western part of the city.” While Hungerford was using a Detroit Aeroplane Company engine in the airplane at that time, he had plans to install his own power plant. Hungerford expected to make “many flights in the city during the summer and promises royal entertainment in this line. He believes his motor will prove superior to others on the market. He is working very quietly but he expects in a month to be able to make a flight.”
The Bleriot Type XI airplane, with Daniel Hungerford as pilot, located near West Second Street in Elmira with the Hungerford house behind at center. Left to right are Jennie Hungerford Badger, Stanley Kosmicki, Nellie Ahern, Vivian Hungerford (later Wells), Robert Pease, “Mrs. Esther War of Mud Creek near Troy [Pennsylvania]”, and Mary Ward Hungerford. A similar but not identical image was printed in August 7, 1955, Sunday Telegram.
A newspaper clip dated May 13, 1958 with the same image purportedly shows a photo of
Leon (Windy) Smith
just becoming familiar with the controls of an airplane. It was then that he “hopped” this 1909 [sic] Bleriot monoplane from 823 W. Second St. to the corner of Hoffman and Second Sts. The plane, believed to be the first in Chemung County, was owned by Daniel D. Hungerford, who took this picture, and his brother, Floyd F. [sic] Hungerford.
In a 1961 letter Daniel Hungerford wrote that the Detroit engine with a 5.5” bore and 5” stroke developed thirty horsepowers. A rod had “broken and took a piece of the cylinder and crankcase with it. We made patterns of the missing parts and had castings made and molded them up but she was underpowered—just as well or I might not be writing this.”29
While one might wonder if the similar Hungerford airplane engine is actually the rebuilt Detroit, a comparison of the two engines shows that the component parts differ. Perhaps the Hungerfords had been inspired by photographs and descriptions of the Detroit engine produced as early as 1909. Daniel Hungerford wrote that he and Floyd built their engine “back in 1909–1910.”30
J. Philip Young in a 1975 letter to the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum wrote:
Dan and his brother Floyd worked as machinists in my father’s machine shop known then as The Glass Cutters Supply Co., later the Young Machine Corp., on Railroad Ave., in Elmira…
While working in Dad’s shop they were bitten by the “aeroplane bug” and talked Dad into letting them build an aeroplane Vertically [sic] in an open area in the shop. It was necessary for them to get permission to remove the flooring and joist, from a space, from the floor above.
The plane was successful for they flew it in Schornsteiners [sic] cow pasture, near their home.31
A photo dated 1912 [sic] shows Daniel Hungerford and a friend, Stanley Kosmicki, with the same airplane. Marvin said the Hungerfords participated in “airplane meets and barnstorming events with their Bleriot monoplane.”32 But Kosmicki wrecked the Bleriot monoplane; a photograph documents the damage. A non-attributed typescript at the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum says the nineteen-year old pilot “got too close to the ground, hit a knoll, and destroyed the airplane, fortunately doing no damage to himself.” Kosmicki’s grandson Joseph E. said in 1994 that the Hungerford-Stanley Kosmicki “relationship nearly ended (along with the future of the Kosmicki family) when my grandfather crashed the plane into a grove of trees, in what is believed to be the first air crash in New York State. We do have pre-crash photos of the plane.”33
Daniel and Floyd Hungerford along with Frank N. Edic rebuilt the craft as a biplane. City directories for 1921 and 1922 include a photo of the modified Bleriot airplane in advertisements for Hungerford “Automobile Repairing and Airplane Builders & Repairers” at 823 W. Second Street.
Other photographs labeled by Hungerford show first the redesigned frame and later the refinished airplane.
ELMIRA, N.Y. Oct. 1922
Small biplane—built from our old Bleriot monoplane cross channel type -1909—model. (dam fools we were) and sold it to J. E. Walter, mgr. “Carolina Fliers” Lumberton, North Carolina and finally acquired by Clarence Chamberlain, Teeterborough, N.J. but never received. Seems he got in a scrap with Chamberlain?
The motor was a Detroit aeroplane 5 ½” Bore – 5” Stroke -2 –Cyld opposed 35 to 40 H.P. aircooled—prop was a Paragon 5’ - - Pitch x 5’ – 6” diam. We built the prop [?] on the little biplane –
This is a picture of Hungerford Brothers Shop and Residence at 823 W. Second St Elmira, NY and the little biplane built from our old Bleriot Biplane 1909 model. Our “Bleriot”—was built by August Rauschenbusch—Greenville, Pa, near Meadville, Pa.34
Rebuilt as a biplane, this is the Bleriot frame before it was covered. The photograph was taken behind the Hungerford house at right.
A photograph of the rebuilt Bleriot was used in a
Hungerford advertisement in Elmira directories in the 1920s.
Marvin reported that the Hungerford’s rebuilt Bleriot was replaced by a Curtiss “and two or three Wacos.” Of his aviation accomplishments, Daniel Hungerford wrote in Who’s Who in American Aeronautics in 1925, that he:
Built airplane motor 1909–1910; bought and flew Bleriot Monoplane Aug. 13, 1913; rebuilt same into Biplane, 1919–1920; organized Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corp. in 1921; reorganized in 1922; did General Flying to 1924; built and flew glider 1920.35
In the 1990s, Ethel Hungerford, “a distant cousin,” recalled sewing canvas for an airplane the brothers were building. Daniel Hungerford asked to use her sewing machine, but “I told him I didn’t let anyone use it. I asked him what he wanted to use it for and he said he wanted canvas sewed for his airplane. So I did it.” She also recalled that Hungerford used to buy gasoline for his airplanes from her and her husband Fred, who ran a “gas station and lunch room” in Horseheads near the Hungerford flying field.36
Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation: Daniel and Floyd with colleagues in 1921 incorporated the Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition to give “exhibition flights with aeroplanes or other aerial instrumentalities, carrying passengers therewith, general manufacture, buying, selling and dealing in aeroplanes and aeroplane supplies” as well as, in the generalized inclusive terms of many incorporations, to include anything involved with automobiles, boats and “vehicles of every kind and description for the transportation of passengers or goods.”37 With $500 of capital, the four subscribers to the certificate of incorporation were Daniel and Floyd as well as Frank N. Edic (386 ½ E. Warren Street) and George R. Haight (219 South Avenue). Each of the incorporators took five $25 shares and also served on the initial board of directors joined by Lewis Henry,38 the attorney who prepared the incorporation papers.
George Ross Haight (1897?–?) appeared in the 1920 federal census as an unmarried machinist employed as a “setline [?] welder”. The city directory listed him 1920 as a “repairman” boarding at 217 [sic] South Avenue. In 1925, he was a “mechanic” boarding at 850 Perine Street. His youth and lack of attachment to Elmira through marriage or property ownership suggest Haight was an incorporator more on a basis of his enthusiasm for aviation than on his experience or investment.
Edic (1882?–?), mentioned above, had joined Hungerford in the Bleriot airplane project. The 1920 federal census indicated that he was, at that time, a 38-year old, self-employed auto repairer. City directories showed Edic as a partner in an automobile garage in 1915, a machinist at the Willys-Morrow automobile factory in 1919, an auto repairer in 1920 and 1921, an auto salesman 1922–1927, and an auto salesman through the 1930s into 1940.
The 1928 city directory actually had the earliest listing for the Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation. The field was at “junction Corning rd and Tompkins Corners rd, office 823 W Second.” Daniel Hungerford was president, Floyd secretary, and Arthur G. Bingham of Waverly treasurer.
In the 1930 federal census, Bingham, age 46, was a druggist although apparently not a pharmacist. Waverly directories are enlightening. For example, in 1926 Bingham’s operation on Broad Street stocked gifts, sodas, candy, and paints as well as patent medicines. In 1930 Bingham was manager of Bingham’s Medicine Store in Athens, Pennsylvania. Owned by his wife, Julia K. Bingham, the shop sold “patent medicines and conf[ections].” In 1938 Bingham was running a second-hand furniture store in South Waverly. What aviation interest or other connection to the Hungerfords brought Bingham to be involved in the Aeroplane Corporation has not been discovered here.
An undocumented transcript of a conversation about Chemung County aviation history quotes a man named Griswold about “the Hungerford Field.” In response to a question about whether the Hungerfords had their own airplane, Griswold replied, “Oh yes. They always had something to fly. There was usually something [Daniel] was wrestling with. He didn’t do as much flying as he did working on stuff. Other people used his field.”39
Photographing from an airplane in the late winter of 1923 Hungerford promoted a soaring meet around Elmira as well as “part of Bradford County, Pennsylvania.” The executive vice-chairman of the National Aeronautic Association of the United States of America contest committee, B. Russell Shaw, acknowledged the materials Hungerford had sent, but Hungerford years later noted, “We got no pay for this great job. Not even a gallon of gas was offered – gas –was - .07–.08 per gallon From- Elmira or Chemung County we – photographed the county…from the air – airplane D. D. – F.S. Hungerford D.D.H.”40
Cleoral Lovell in 1967 wrote that, “My most thrilling excursions as a child were to Hungerfords’ Airport with my parents to spend the days watching early flights. The airport was in “Fisherville”—midway between Horseheads and Big Flats.”41
Jasper Hungerford as a nine-year old nephew told of flying with Daniel Hungerford piloting a biplane. Daniel Hungerford told Jasper to “hang on” as he rolled the airplane a complete circle, that they would have no problem as long as he kept his seat belt on.42
An undated newspaper clip from the early 1920s tells of the first flights of an 83-year-old man, Erie F. Vaughn, from the “Hungerford field”. “Pilot [Leon] Brink” was the man in charge of the airplane for several Vaughn jaunts. Brink had “carried hundreds over Elmira but finds that with advancing years there is less inclination on the parts of visitors to the field to imitate a bird…”43
The Elmira Airplane Corporation, probably from the
early 1920s, advertised flights. A newspaper article suggested
later “there is less inclination on the parts of visitors to the field to imitate a bird . . . ”
But there were other uses for flying; one involved the funeral of Edward J. Dunn (1866–1927). As president of the Eclipse Machine Company (manufacturing among other products self-starters for automobiles), Dunn had been successful in other businesses, as well. And according to the Elmira Star-Gazette, Dunn was “among the community’s great benefactors, and Dunn Memorial at St. Joseph’s Hospital”. On October 26, 1927 there was to be an additional tribute to Dunn “paid from the air.”
It was about 15 years ago [ca. 1912] that, through the generosity of Mr. Dunn an airport was provided for Daniel and Floyd Hungerford, pioneers in airplane building and flying in Elmira. From that beginning the Elmira Airplane Exhibition Corporation developed and is in charge of Mr. Daniel Hungerford.
“Mr. Dunn always took a keep interest in aviation,” said Mr. Hungerford, “He always found time to see me when I wished to consult with him on any matter, even when I did not previously arrange an engagement. He told me many a time how he and Mrs. Dunn sat at their home above Clark’s Glen and watched our airplanes over the city.
“Leon Brink, of our Corporation, will leave the Hungerford Airport Wednesday at the time of the funeral at St. Patrick’s Church, climb to a high altitude and slowly sweep in a high spiral over the church. When the funeral procession leaves for the cemetery, the airplane will lead and at the close of the ceremony at the resting place of Mr. Dunn will drop loose flowers.”44
In the early 1930s, city directories listed Daniel Hungerford as president of the Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation with Floyd as secretary and Bingham as treasurer. The corporate office remained at 823 West Second Street with the field at the junction of Corning Road and Tompkins Corners Road. But while the 1936 directory still had a final listing for Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition, the dissolution of the corporation had come from the Secretary of State on December 15, 1934 “pursuant to section 203-A” of the “tax law”. It seems likely the Exhibition Corporation was not a lucrative undertaking for any of its shareholders or employees (if any).
Thomas E. Byrne noted that the Caton Avenue Airport operating on the south side of the Chemung River in Elmira since 1927 closed in January 1934. The Elmira Flying Club which had been using the Caton Avenue facility then “obtained a flying field in Fisherville that had been used by Dan Hungerford.”45 This, of course, suggests an end to the Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation activities by that time.
The Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation owned at least one aircraft. At a sheriff’s sale in July 1930, Hungerford purchased a Waco Model 9 airplane (serial 343) manufactured in 1926. Originally owned by J. Lewis Lovell of Chemung, New York, the plane had been damaged by windstorm “during winter of 1927–1928 in a southern state. Wings damaged and fuselage buckled. Shipped to and under repair at Hungerford Bros garage, Elmira, N.Y. Rebuilt by Hungerford. Ident. # issued 2/2/29. Held in storage for repair charges.” On August 14, 1931 Hungerford sold the craft to the Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation. An application was made for an identification number but this was “not issued due to unclear title. No further information after 11/24/31”, according to a National Air and Space Museum listing of historical aircraft.
Daniel Hungerford owned another registered airplane, a Curtiss JN-4C (serial C-1401), which he sold, probably in 1926, to George R. Haight and William Bussey of Rochester. The plane was destroyed in an accident in July 1927.46
Many years later, Daniel and Floyd sold items to the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum in Hammondsport including a Curtiss JN-4 and a Curtiss Oriole airplane. Whether the Hungerfords had flown these airplanes is not known but at that point the aircraft were in poor condition and incomplete. The fuselage of the Oriole was the subject of a Hungerford experiment in improved motor vehicle suspension systems described below.
The Corning Leader in 1961 reported that an extensive collection of early aircraft components were the gift [sic] of Floyd [sic] Hungerford to the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum of Local History. Included were fuselages from a Curtiss JN-4 (Jenny), Curtiss Oriole (serial 853) and another plane unidentified although with a Curtiss OX-5 engine mount. Additional items included an OX-5 engine, two “Rouen” [Le Rhone?] engines, nine propellers, Jenny wing struts, Jenny stick control units and 25 or 30 OX-5 cylinders “in wonderful condition”. The article added that
Mr. Hungerford, an early flier, owned an airport in Elmira and was employed in repairing planes, etc. In 1929, his business failed, and packing all the early Curtiss airplane parts in newspapers, he stored them and larger items in two barns with the idea that he would some day establish a museum to early aviation. His idea never materialized, and although he has been approached by a number of interested individuals throughout the country who wished to purchase his prized stock, he would not part with them until Mr. [Otto P.] Kohl contacted him and explained plans for the museum here [Hammondsport] in the “Cradle of naval Aviation” in honor of the native son who invented many of the items stored.47
In 1963, Paul D. Wilson wrote to Otto P. Kohl at the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum about a Clerget aircraft engine in the museum collections.
If you located the remains of this engine in the Elmira area it may well be a Clerget that was used in an Avro. Dan Hungerford was mixed up in this deal in some manner but for the life of me I cannot recall the details. It seems to me that he owned this Avro but it is possible that he called me for another party. At any rate I went over to Elmira and finished rigging the ship. I then flew it a number of times. There was a novice pilot there who was to take over the flying and I recall that his ship was operated for quite some time.48
Eva Taylor noted that the “Elmira Telegram for Sept.11, 1927, [reported] Daniel Hungerford was said to be a recognized authority on the history of early aviation in this area. At the time of the dedication of the Chemung airport he arranged an historic window display at the Iszard [department] store.”49 In 1962, aviation history researchers in St. Joseph, Michigan, Sherwin Murphy and Richard Derrick, exchanged letters with Daniel Hungerford about alleged 1898 powered-flight experiments undertaken by Augustus Herring at St. Joseph. Herring’s collaborator and financial backer was Matthias H. Arnot (1833-1901) of Elmira. Since I had been an intern at the Henry Ford Museum, which had received correspondence from Murphy and Derrick, I visited Hungerford in Elmira to ask if he had any knowledge of Arnot’s involvement with Herring, but Hungerford, who already had received a letter from Murphy and Derrick, told me he had no substantive information about the Herring experiments.50 Daniel did, on another occasion, write to Otto Kohl, curator of the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum, that he and his brother Floyd “knew Mat. Arnot personally.” In that letter, Hungerford described a glider built in 1913 or 1914 by Charles S. Teasdale according to drawings made by Arnot before the latter’s death.51
In 1960 Daniel Hungerford wrote to the New York Journal American to remind the newspaper of the upcoming (1961) fiftieth anniversary of the transcontinental air race sponsored by the paper. While the $50,000 prize had not been awarded in 1911, Hungerford said he had “appointed himself a committee of one…to celebrate that great man [Calbraith P. Rodgers who came closest to claiming the prize] and event in the old fashioned American manner – and I’ll need help and money -. What can and will you do?”52
In 1961 Daniel Hungerford writing an end to Hungerford brothers’ flight endeavors said they had “maintained a field and carried on until 1927 – then we built and licensed and operated the first jet or rocket car….” 53
22 Taylor, Eva C., “Hungerford’s Rockets”, The Chemung Historical Journal, vol. 20 no. 2, December 1974, p. 2447.
23 Elmira Star Gazette (Elmira Advertiser?), dated December 28, 1965.
24 Daniel D. Hungerford to Keith Marvin, May 22, 1964.
25 Cliff R. Towner to Geoffrey N. Stein, November 22, 1994.
26 Jon Elan Steen to Geoffrey Stein, August 24, 1992. Elan Steen added, “I am sure they [William and his siblings, the children of Daniel and Floyd’s brother William] could tell you more than my mother and I, but they are an odd family, and stubborn besides. I know the family was quite embarrassed about all the newspaper stories about evicting uncle Dan.”
27 Louis S. Casey, Curtiss[,] The Hammondsport Era 1907-1915 (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1981).
28 A piece of what may have been a hand-written date appears at the top of the photocopy of the clip seen by the author, “…- 16 – 14”. Daniel Hungerford noted that his first flight with the Bleriot was August 13, 1913.
29 Daniel D. Hungerford to William E. Dion, July 25, 1961.
30 Daniel D. Hungerford to William E. Dion, August 31, 1961.
31 Undated letter, but a reply from Merrill Stickler, Curtiss curator, is dated August 6, 1975. A postscript again refers to the Hungerfords: “Perhaps the plane they built was replaced with the $2000.00 one.” The last may refer to the Bleriot.
32 Keith Marvin, “The Wizards of West Second Street”, Automobile Quarterly, Fall 1965, p. 195.
33 Joe Kosmicki to Geoffrey Stein, April 13, 1994. The Star Gazette, December 28, 1965, said the Hungerfords paid $200 for the Bleriot and had it shipped to Elmira via the Pennsylvania Railroad. Directories from the 1910s into the 1940s listed Stanley Kosmicki as a machinist employed variously by the American Sales Book, Ward-LaFrance, and Eclipse Machine operations.
34 The photographs with Hungerford’s inscriptions are in the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum files.
35 Hungerford in a letter to Keith Marvin, July 15, 1964, asks, “Did I give you one of my photos – riding a glider?” Marvin replied on July 20, 1964, that he didn’t have such a picture but would like to have one because of the “heavy connection between rocketry, Elmira and the soaring contest.”
36 Quoted by Tom Page in the Star Gazette, June 30, 1994.
37 The Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition was incorporated by the New York Secretary of State on July 1, 1921. The corporation was dissolved by proclamation on December 15, 1934.
38 Thomas E. Byrne, Chemung County 1890–-1975 (Elmira, 1976), p. 83, notes Henry (1884–1941) was a “man of distinguished appearance and engaging personality, [who] attained eminence in law, politics and business.” In addition to holding county offices, he served one term in Congress (1922–1923) as a Republican.
39 The three-page excerpt is found among materials collected by David Smith in the early 2000s and given in photocopy form to the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum and to the Chemung County Historical Society.
40 B. Russell Shaw to D. D. Hungerford, March 27, 1923. Hungerford wrote his comments on a carbon copy of a letter from Malcolm J. Wilson, apparently secretary of the Elmira Chamber of Commerce, to Shaw, March 30, 1923.
41 Cleoral Lovell to Paul Edward Garber, November 10, 1967.
42 Stan Hungerford, the late Jasper’s son, recalled this story to the author by telephone, August 21, 2009.
43 Byrne, Chemung County 1890–1975, p. 388
44 This article was copied and written by Cleoral Lovell, who was an editor of the St. Joseph’s Hospital Bulletin. Lovell sent the copied text along with a letter November 10, 1967 to Paul Edward Garber at the Smithsonian Institution. Lovell noted that the text was from the “ELMIRA STAR-GAZETTE or ADVERTIZER”.
I did not find the story; perhaps Lovell did in an earlier edition. A later edition of the Star-Gazette for October 26, 1927, said, “During the service at the grave one of the Elmira Airplane Exhibition Company’s planes, piloted by Leon Brink, hovered overhead and dropped flowers over the plot.”
45 Chemung County 1890–1975, p. 278. There are alphabetical city directory listings for the Elmira Airport Corporation at 1467 Caton Avenue through 1933 with Frederick H. Hill as president. The classified sections of the directories continued the Elmira Airport Corporation under “air transportation” at least through 1936. The only other listing there was the Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation.
46 National Air and Space Museum “Historical Aircraft Listing”.
47 The clip is dated October 10, 1961.
48 October 20, 1963. There is no inside address indicating where Wilson was writing. Daniel Hungerford in a rhyming tribute to the Curtiss Museum and a review of his personal knowledge of early aviation mentions “Your author –took a similar ride in a British Avro – open cock pit –belts fell so low – I couldnet [sic] reach – from Suffern, N.Y. over the Poconos – to Windsor, N.Y. Harold O. (Bull ) Nevin – Pilot We—were flying high –oer mountains –rivers – lakes – trees ---. At Windsor we bought oil and gass [sic] – I recovered my belts – quite safe at last--,” A photocopy of a November 4, 1923, letter on Elmira Aeroplane Exhibition Corporation letterhead from “Bull” to Daniel Hungerford survives. In the text the author complains of a small bank account and good employment. Another letter exists from Bull, possibly dating from January 1924. In it he wrote, “Wish to God I was flying, sure am sick of it up here as I never was before.” The 1920 federal census showed Harold O. Nevin as a laborer on his father’s dairy farm in the town of Massena in St. Lawrence County. The 1930 and 1931 Syracuse city directories listed Nevin as an “aviator”. The Social Security Death Index showed Nevin lived from 1892 to 1968.
49 Eva C. Taylor, “Hungerford’s Rockets”, The Chemung Historical Journal, vol. 20 no. 1, December 1974, p. 2447.
50 Sherwin Murphy to Daniel D. Hungerford, January 9, 1962. In this letter, Murphy refers to a Hungerford letter to “Richard Derrick, city editor of the St. Joseph Herald-Press” from December 27, 1961. Hungerford replied to the Murphy letter on January 12, 1962.
51 Daniel D. Hungerford to Otto Kohl, April 3, 1961 [The last digit is unclear].
52 Daniel D. Hungerford to “Promotional Manager”, December 8, 1960. A postscript added, “I’m a two-time winner of your puzzle department. D.”
53 Daniel D. Hungerford to William E. Dion, July 25, 1961.