by Geoffrey N. Stein
Chapter 7: TO THE STARS BY "ELECTRO-MAGNETIC SPACE DRIVE"
The Elmira Advertiser for July 11, 1932, reported that Daniel Hungerford was planning an “attempt to send a shaft of light to the moon” during a total eclipse of the sun on August 31. “Mr. Hungerford hopes that the shaft was [sic – will be?] reflected to some point north of here with sufficient strength that it may be seen with a powerful telescope. If this is done it will mean that he has established means of communication for which science has long sought but never achieved.” The Associated Gas and Electric Company was to be asked to provide a searchlight “of sufficient strength to throw a beam so far a distance.” But the article pointed out that the “Lindbergh beacon at Chicago”, supposedly the world's most powerful searchlight, “can throw a light only 21 miles.” Unfavorable weather conditions in themselves likely prevented Hungerford from shining a light on the moon. In any case, the Elmira newspapers had no report in subsequent days about the experiment.
An Elmira Sunday Telegram article from March 1963 featured a photograph of Hungerford with Cressy A. Mowrey looking at the solar eclipse of August 30, 1932 from the Elmira College observatory.190 A report from the September 1, 1932 edition of the Star-Gazette, where a similar photograph was printed, explained that the 94 percent eclipse of the sun by the moon was observed through an image thrown upon a piece of cardboard. Hungerford demonstrated a knowledge of astronomy in explaining the irregular outline of the moon as “the shadows of mountains of the lunar orb. In a total eclipse the sun's corona, shining through their valleys, give the beautiful phenomenon known as Bailey' Beads. The corona is not visible except in total eclipse, Mr. Hungerford said.”
Hungerford's interest in astronomy reportedly dated from 1909, when he had his “first telescope view of outer space. The planet Saturn and her rings so impressed him he reproduced experimentally the globe and rings for his scientific lectures.” As early as 1936, Hungerford was reported “constructing models of the planet Saturn to be used in schools and observatories...”191
Following the success of their rocket car, the Hungerfords hoped to power themselves off the earth. A proposed flying version of the Shirley Lois “The Moon Girl” was drawn by sign painter Robert N. Hopkins, Daniel's erstwhile brother-in-law.192 Shirley Hyde recalled:
[T]he hullabaloo when a sepia section of a New York City paper...ran a Sunday section on the rocket car. The article stated that Dan expected to go to the moon by a certain date, taking me with him. I must have been a first grader at Hendy Avenue School in Elmira at the time this was published, and I remember the taunting I took about my ‘crackpot' father, and I was TERRIFIED then that he'd actually take me to the moon and I'd have leave my mother and maternal grandmother. By that time, my mother and dad had separated. I don't know whatever happened to that paper.193
In 1936 Hungerford contemplated leaving politics to “carry on experimental work.” He was quoted as saying, “There are practically no inventions at present suited to explore the universe. I see man's destiny as involving the conquest of space and the occupation of the stars. Invention along this line is unlimited.” And as a “solution to the death rate”, he said, “we will call on science to raise the Bertillion measurements of a man to the nth degree – to the point where a man blown to bits by an explosion might be recreated from the measurement of himself on file.”194
Cliff Towner wrote that just before he enlisted in the army in 1945, “Dan showed me plans and diagrams of his ‘Dream Ship,' a three-stage rocket ship that would take a man to ‘the Moon and beyond' as Dan put it.”195
The German magazine Der Stern, in a 1958 article about Robert H. Goddard's experiments with liquid-fuel rockets, published photos of Daniel and Floyd with a liquid-fuel rocket motor, the Hungerford rocket car, and the artist's conception of the Hungerford rocket ship. The text accompanying the images said in his home town Daniel Hungerford was known as a “dreamer of dreams in the world of science [Traeumer von Traeumen in der Welt der Wissenschaft.]” The journal said the brothers had worked five years on their car. And that they intended to power airplanes with rockets, but when glider pilot Jack Omera, who was to fly a rocket-powered airplane, died in an accident, the brothers abandoned their plans.196 A decade later Daniel Hungerford observed that the writer of the Stern story, Yevon [sic] Spiegelberg, who had come to New York to do her research, had said the article was to be printed in book form. Although the Hungerfords thought they “were entitled to a copy –we never got the book”.
Hungerford thinking of rockets in 1964 said, “Every time one of those things goes overhead, I think we had a responsibility....We started to make the rocket popular...and that was our contribution to rocket science.”197 But Frank H. Winter, a research historian at the National Air and Space Museum, wrote to the author in 1979 that in his “own extensive researches on rocketry of the 1920's and 30's....I have not come across the name of Hungerford.” Nor did he find that name in the published Goddard papers. Winter added, however, that many letters to Goddard were omitted. Furthermore, in the course of interviews for his Prelude to the Age of Space: The Rocket Societies 1924–1940, Winter noted “the rocket pioneer Roberson Youngquist recalled that one of his initial influences in rocketry and its potential was a rocket car he had seen at a state fair in the 20's and 30's.”198
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC SPACE DRIVE
While the handbill promoting Daniel Hungerford's candidacy to the state assembly in 1948 mentioned among his accomplishments the “rotating electromagnetic field”, the Corning Leader for November 25, 1957, reported that the Hungerfords had “more or less lost interest” in their electro-magnetic space drive model until news of the Russian Sputnik satellite. Now they were ‘gearing up' again to continue their experiments.199 The Leader said that Russian successes with satellites had renewed the Hungerfords' interest in space travel.
“Just prior to World war II we discovered an invention my brother and I had developed had certain features which might be employed for national defense,” he [Daniel Hungerford] said today. “So we filed that phase with the War Department and dropped further research – until now. And of course that phase cannot be revealed even now.
“With the advent of the Russian satellites we have decided to bring our invention into the open, and perhaps add to man's great venture into outer space. We believe the machine could be used even to bring both Sputniks back to earth by peaceful means.”
He said he had also experimented with the use of acoustics to break up rings of iron filings with repeated success.
Mr. Hungerford declared that in his opinion a rocket could take off from earth, hover or speed on its way, through a thorough knowledge of electromagnetic force in the universe.
He said the electromagnetic field of the earth is well known, and is confident it can be used effectively all the way to the outermost areas of the galaxy of which the earth is a very small bit.
The machine he and his brother built proves that theory, he declared.200
A portion of an undated Hungerford letter in the 1960s describes the construction of the electro-magnetic space drive model and, apparently, Hungerford's power of mental telepathy to control it. “If the combined mental Power of all the People of the Earth could be centered on the great Rings of Saturn could be smashed – just as the Children of Israel smashed the wall a [sic] Jericho – See Bible Story.”
Steven Sekella related in 2008 that such a model was on the rear seat of the 1935 Pontiac automobile when Hungerford ceased driving it in 1964 or 1965.201 As Sekella recalls the model it consisted of a wooden box with a bell jar on top. Inside the jar was a coil of wire in ball shape. There were two black knobs on the box and an external battery. Hungerford could control a ring around the coil, making the ring go forward and backward.202
A non-bylined story in the Elmira Star-Gazette for December 28, 1965 quoted Hungerford about the problem of a rocket using liquid fuel for travel to the moon. “With us the fallacy of the rocket is the great amount of fuel it takes. It took us a gallon of regular gasoline to go two miles.” Instead, the Hungerfords reportedly devised a “theory of propulsion on electromagnetic drive” based on Hungerford's idea that a “moving charge of electricity had weight. Therefore, it has inertia.” An atomic “engine” would produce the current needed. “We gave up the idea of electromagnetic drive 30 years ago because we were getting into deep water” But then he showed the reporter a letter from the National Air and Space Agency “welcoming a more detailed description of his electromagnetic drive theory.”
Hungerford wrote to Marvin in 1964:
Our idea of space travel is quite different – from that of the – Rocket People. We soon learned the fallacies of Rocket drives and turned our attention to developing an Electro-Magnetic drive and built a working model of our idea. We didn't actually develop drive but did prove that electricity has weight or that we were hitting the earth's magnetic field a terrific wallop?
We laid our model away and haven't been able to locate it since. There is substance for a new story.203
And to the Troy Record (New York) Hungerford said,
The Human Race is so busy exterminating itself—time was when men lived to be a thousand or so years old loosing [sic] that – he tried living thru his off Spring. Tiring of that he is too busy exterminating himself. The writer has however a different outlook on life – in spite of the fact [sic]were taught from childhood - that three score and ten was - is – the limit. Getting back more specifically to your query – the late Dr. R. H. Goddard – patented a lot of space travel schemes – the problem then as now was to get off the Earth – to employ them. Some 30 years ago – the writer and my late brother – Floyd S. Hungerford built a small model of an Electro Magnetic Space drive – the ideal Machine to – not only get off the earth and back on – as also on the other – planets – without breaking our necks. Showed considerable promise but lacking money and time we abandoned the project untill [sic] now but we still have to have help from our government or others or we may find ourselves stalled for another third of a century. Wish us luck.204
Of the Hungerford brothers' investigation into an “electromagnetic propulsion system”, Igor Spajic said this would have used an atomic motor.
Before atomic research narrowed into an orthodoxy of nuclear fission, the field was wide open. There were various theories in the 1930's on how to extract the usable energy from the atom, and physics laboratories tried different methods. Did the unique equations of the Hungerfords give them some special insight into this problem? What has become of the lost mathematics? As it was, the Hungerfords abandoned this line of research during the 1930's, admitting candidly that they were out of their depth.205
In the 1960s Daniel Hungerford returned to the electro-magnetic space drive. An intriguing open letter of solicitation from Hungerford, undated but apparently from 1964, notes,
Today, the writer enlisted the help and cooperation of two young men – Steve Sekella and Pete Oakley - in the development of an electro-magnetic space drive useful even in the earths [sic] atmosphere, and solicit your help in any form and capacity you may wish to contribute – postage stamps, trading stamps, or anything we can turn into money; engineering skill, labor, shop space and equipment, machinery, etc., etc.206
Seeking funds for developing the electro-magnetic space drive, this letter from Daniel Hungerford ca. 1964 said, "postage stamps, trading stamps or anything we can turn into money" would with "vast and comprehensive are our plans . . . there will be no limit on the amount of time each can serve with the limits of his strength and capacity."
The “electro-magnetic space drives” are an intriguing concept unfortunately not made clear in the letter. But it seems that by 1964, rockets “in the short span of thirty odd years” had “proven quite useless as a means of propulsion for solar and for interstellar travel.”
H. Steven Sekella and Peter Oakley, graduates of Elmira Free Academy in 1963, assisted the Hungerford brothers, especially Daniel. Sekella notes Daniel Hungerford wanted to set up the electro-magnetic space drive model in the yard outside the Hungerford house; Sekella and Oakley would have been happy to oblige for “With Dan we were ready for everything.” Sekella, some forty-five years later recalls seeing the model, but doesn't know what happened to it. And he does not understand “what the project really was.”207
This stationary used by Daniel Hungerford in 1966 mentions assistants, H. Steven Skella and Peter Oakley, 1963 high school graduates from Elmira Free Academy. The heading included Hungerford-Sekella-Oakley/ Electro-Magnetic-Space Drives/ Solar and Interstellar/ Rocket Motors/ For Automobiles-Airplanes-Gliders.
In a letter to Marvin on August 13, 1964, Hungerford wrote unhappily that “Mr. Sekella is on leave from the armed forces but leaves for Germany this weekend. Mr. Oakley is attending an Industrial College in Corning, N.Y., so the writer will get little help from them for some time.”
In September 1966, Hungerford made a drawing of the electro-magnetic space drive apparatus. Both the drawing and the accompanying explanation carry a date of conception, June 1, 1934, as well as the name of the inventors, Daniel David and Floyd S. Hungerford. The drawing was signed by John L. Sherman, a friend, on September 27, 1966, as a “witness.” Hungerford's notes listed:
Alphabetical letters are employed here to designate the component parts of a model of our idea of an electro-magnetic space drive – method - of driving craft through the universe – as - opposed to rockets.
A- represents the blades of modern helicopters – with copper windings installed – inside – if – possible – otherwise auxiliary – blades – will –have – to be built - with – the –necessary copper coils - and –mounted – on – the – vertical shaft – and – above – the – present – airfoils.
B- shows – copper – coil – M – section
C – is – verticle [sic] - shaft
D – is –blade –hub
E – E – is [sic?] collecter [sic] ring
F- shows –plan – of –blade
G- edge - view – of –blade
H – metal – brush – not shown
I – positive terminal
J – negative terminal –grounded to frame
Dynamo – and –magnetic – lines not shown
Our – present – model – is made of wood and necessary – metal parts –was made thirty – odd - years – ago- and – tested- to a certain – point –and – laid – aside –until now.
Daniel Hungerford's drawing of the "electro-magnetic space drive" dates from September 27, 1966 and witnessed by
John L. Sherman. The Hungerfords "conception" on the drawing is dated as June 1, 1934.
In August 1966 Hungerford wrote that in 1965 [sic], he had asked the National Air and Space Administration for a $250,000 check to help develop the concept of “electro-magnetic space drive”. It “took 4 months to reply in the negative.”208 Apparently, a letter from Edward R. Redding at N.A.S.A. in December 1964 had been encouraging. Hungerford replied that, “We can get some where with this thing now.” Hungerford continued with some history of his space drive development
Some 30 years ago my brother Floyd and I built a working model of our idea of an electro-magnetic space drive. We didn't develop drive but did develop terrible agitation [of?[ the whole machine when we electrified our coils. We dropped the project until....] There was no atomic [sic] engine of necessity for our project. We cant...209
Hungerford concluded his letter to Redding by noting his need for ten to twelve thousand dollars “and more as the work progresses.” He asked about “protection” since he had no patents. And he finished by stating, “We have always paid our way, Mr. Redding-. Have never asked our government for help before and have never been offered any.”
In September 1966 Hungerford telephoned the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation at Bethpage to promote his electro-magnetic space drive. Mellor A. Gill, a patent counsel, in a follow-up letter advised Hungerford that Grumman
would be willing to consider your idea if submitted on a non-confidential basis in which you rely upon the patent rights you now have or may hereafter acquire. If this is agreeable with you, it is suggested that you submit sketches and descriptive material sufficient to enable our engineers to comprehend fully the construction and operation of your device.
After receipt and evaluation of same, we will then advise you as to whether or not Grumman is interested in undertaking the development...or acquiring any rights with respect thereto.210
Then, having been rejected by Grumman, Hungerford turned to Keith C. Richardson, “chief electronics engineer” at the Conelectrics, Inc. facility in Southport. In a letter, Hungerford noted refusal of funding by N.A.S.A. and mentioned Amtorge Exporting Corporation in New York City but “that would have to be a despert [sic] move on our part.” He concluded his letter by noting the importance of H. Steven Sekella to the Hungerford enterprise since he was crippled with osteomyelitis (a bacterial or fungi bone infection). Unfortunately, Sekella was stationed by the military in Germany.211 In another letter he observed that his contact with Amtorge potentially would “send me to Russia.”212
In August 1966, Hungerford wrote to his friends Erwin D. and Helen French,
Floyd S. & I intended to be the first men on the moon – and may be yet. N.A.S.A. rocket is hellish. Blasting a capsel [sic] with a baby rocket will require the astronauts to eject and soft land by a stream of fire (rocket) on the moon –carrying enough fuel to blast off climb up to and orbit fast enough and reenter the parent capsal [sic] and return to earth. (We don't say it can't be done) but will take some doing. Where as with our electro-magnetic space drive – you simply haul your space ship out of the hanger- take off easy (no Cape Kennedy) climb up to the top of the atmosphere – cut in your electro-mag. Stop in space –Hover if you wish –go on – ease your ship on to the moon or move to any point on the moon – Even on the back side which we've never seen – even the photos of the back side reveal nothing to my satisfaction. There can be air and water there. We proved with our Electro models this is true for any [?] thing of a liquid nature – Even dust...?...to centrifugal force to support the moon at a quarter of a million miles the earth has to back off 1000 miles. The latters Polar axis enscribes [?] years. Our year is 12 months with varying number of days.213
In October 1966 Hungerford wrote to Sekella that he had located the parts of the electro-magnetic space drive machine but because of his physical problems he could do nothing with them. In the future, Hungerford and Sekella would pursue the development of the space drive together.
In the event of success, Steve it will be a terrible blow to the rocket business – we would back the machine out of the Hanger – climb up to the top of the atmosphere –start the dynamo –cut in the magnets – hover in space –stop –land on the moon on magnet Power – Hop from place - to place. We'll be using an atomic engine – go on to Mars & etc. & etc.214
Also in 1966 Hungerford wrote to Mechanics Illustrated magazine offering to sell the story of Floyd's and his electro-magnetic space drive “for space vehicles – as opposed to rockets – our machine was to be powered with an atomic engine –none in existence at that time.” He concluded his letter by noting, “I can't sell the story for $5.00 [$5,000?] – make me an offer. Its [sic] got to be good [great?].”215
In January 1967 Hungerford wrote to Sekella that the electro-magnetic space drive still “needs lots of development – We'll discuss the future of same when you get home” from Europe. In the meantime Hungerford said he was “working on a machine of a different nature – that may have some promise – something we (I) can do here in my two little rooms--.”216
While in Germany Sekella wrote a series of letters to Hungerford. In one he wrote that if he were able to get back to Elmira in the next summer he hoped “we can get a lot done. I only wish I was back there now working for you, I really enjoyed the times we were together there.”217 On September 30, 1964 Sekella wrote asking, “Has Pete [Oakley] kept in touch with you? Is there any news on our project.” On December 7, 1964 Sekella wrote in part to ask, “Is there any news on our venture. Have you located the model or drawn up any plans?” And in an undated letter, probably from early 1965, Sekella wrote, “I hear you found the model, [sic] this is good news. I wish I were back working around your place.” Meanwhile, it seems that Hungerford had little contact with Oakley. Sekella, too, had little news of Oakley who been attending college. In an undated, probably 1965 or 1966, letter to Hungerford Sekella wrote, “I haven't heard from Pete for a long time. I hear he moved to Horseheads.”
After ruminating on the benefits of electro-magnetic drive Hungerford's solicitation letter (1964) turned to the answer for all of civilization's problems.
So vast and comprehensive are our plans that of the three plus billions and billions yet unborn – human beings ever thruout [sic] eternity – as individuals or groups be out of employment there will be no limit on the amount of time each can serve with the limits of his strength and capacity.
We don't seem to realize machinery in our homes has displaced our Negro men and women servants as also whites without providing new employment or place to go. We are in the position of a baby chick picking at its shell to get out and grow and live.
This may seem sacrilegious to some but we can't wait any longer for the return of Jesus Christ to settle our problems, - we have waited nearly two thousand years – already, we must now take the bull by the horns and solve our problems in a way we know is just and right.
We have tried waste in every conceivable form, including war, murder and suicide. Now get to work and live and let live.218
In an early August 1964 letter to Marvin Hungerford probably referred to the broadside. “[W]e have just had a batch of leaflets struck of which we feel sums up our troubles pretty well – and was inspired by Vincent S. Jones – Executive Editor of the Gannett Newspaper in Rochester, N.Y. July 29 – 1964...” At the top of the solicitation letter in the example preserved by Marvin, Hungerford wrote, “To you and Who Ever, Our Reply to the Race Riots.”
The bottom of Hungerford's stationery of the 1960s is imprinted with “Yours Sincerely for a New Longevity.” Jon Elan Steen alludes to Hungerford's belief in an extraterrestrial existence.
Uncle Dan always wanted to go to the moon but he never made it of course, or did he? I remember he had some interest in or about perpetual motion. I recall Dad [Stephen Viele] going there and I heard the chit chat but I wasn't much interested. It may have related to the mechanical aspects of jet engines, turbine power? I have often given thought to perpetual motion myself, but in a different aspect which is not at all mechanical. As far as I can figure the Soul is capable of perpetual motion – or continuation – i.e., reincarnation, but that doesn't have anything to do with jet rockets. I do not know what Dan's eventual opinion may have been, but it is an interesting idea although I consider it to be somewhat impossible if applied as Dan was interested in using it, i.e., for a mechanical means of motivation or power.219
Following Floyd's funeral in December 1963 grandnephew Stan Hungerford drove Daniel to the burial in Woodlawn Cemetery. En route Daniel Hungerford told Stan, “We don't have to die.”220
In June 1964 Hungerford ruminated about his advancing years and the possibility of extended life spans.
As Floyd and I saw it – the time and equipment inevitably must come when many will be making trips thru the universe that will consume millions of years. Recognizing the Destiny of Man – as involving the conquest of space – the occupation of the stars and the attainment of eternal life on this side of the grave – we have got to quit teaching death and begin teaching life, and methods to attain it....
This business of living millions of years is a pretty big order – for which I have no takers. A subject for another story – later.221
The March 3, 1963 Sunday Telegram printed that the “current space race has resulted in the following letter” according to E. D. French of Waban, Massachusetts. One assumes the letter was submitted by Erwin French, who for many years in or near Elmira had maintained a friendship with Hungerford.222
To the Editor:-
I am wondering what our good friend Dan Hungerford is thinking. Will his thoughts go back when he and few others - very few – had the vision of space travel?
Will he remember the ridicule from those “modern” who at that time (1930) referred to him as “a dreamer,” “up –in-the-air” etc.? Will he think of his lectures to science groups at Elmira College, Cornell and other like institutions only to have an uninterested audience?
Will he bemoan the fact that space travel is near reality; that he reaped no financial rewards for his achievements?
These are questions in the writer's mind; also in the minds of many Elmirans, I feel certain.
As before stated, the number who had the “dream” was limited to few men. Dr. Goddard was one; Max Valier (Germany) another and one or two from Smithsonian and Dan and Floyd Hungerford, Elmira.
Yes, I wonder what Doctor Goddard would say, what Max Valier would say and your home town man, what does he say?
190 A similar photograph appeared in the Sunday Telegram for March 8, 1970.
191 Unidentified 1936 newspaper clip.
192 Soon after Hopkins and Hungerford married, Robert Hopkins himself married and by 1920 resided as a sign painter in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Robert Hopkins returned to Elmira and operated the Hopkins Sign Company.
193 Shirley H. Hyde to Geoffrey Stein, September 9, 1992.
194 Quoted in an unidentified newspaper clip from 1936.
195 Cliff R. Towner to Geoffrey N. Stein, November 22, 1994.
196 Vol. 11 no. 12, May 17, 1958. “Aber als der Segelflieger Jack Omera, der mit dem Raketenflugzeug starten sollte, toedlich verunglueckte, liessen die Brueder Hungerford ihren Plan fallen.”
197 Daniel D. Hungerford to Alton V. Sliter, editor and publisher of the Troy Record, August 13, 1964.
198 Frank H. Winter to Geoffrey N. Stein, July 16, 1979. Syracuse, site of the State Fair, was one of the venues Keith Martin noted as a Hungerford rocket car demonstration.
199 November 25, 1957.
200 Hungerford noted on the newspaper clip that “missile” is more accurate than “rocket” here. The article dates from November 25, 1957.
201 George Mapes told the author by telephone on September 29, 2008 that the Pontiac was a gift to the Hungerfords from Mapes' uncle, Rolla Dickson. Earlier Mapes had borrowed the car from his uncle for dates since he rode a motorcycle. Later, with Hungerford ownership, the car was not in good shape Mapes recalls. The vehicle was shifted from first to third gears since second did not work.
202 Sekella by telephone to the author, November 3, 2008.
203 Daniel D. Hungerford to Keith Marvin, May 18, 1964.
204 Daniel D. Hungerford to Alton V. Sliter, August 13, 1964.
205 Spajic, Restored Cars, Number 140, May-June 2000, p. 16.
206 The letter refers to “my late brother, Floyd S. Hungerford”, who had died December 19, 1963.
207 Sekella in telephone conversation with the author, November 3, 2008.
208 Daniel D. Hungerford to “Ed & Helen”, August 26, 1966. A photocopy of a handwritten letter dated November 24, 1964, asks for a response to his letter of October 17, 1964, in which he, apparently, requested funding. The November letter has no inside address, but a notation of a copy to Congressman Howard W. Robinson suggests the main recipient was a government agency. Hungerford wrote, “We built our model some 30 years ago now I need the work.” On October 2, 1966, Hungerford wrote to Sekella that the amount requested from N.A.S.A. was $150,000.00.
209 Daniel D. Hungerford to Edward R. Redding, December 16, 1964. Only a partial photocopy of Hungerford's letter was available to the author.
210 Mellor A. Gill to Daniel D. Hungerford, September 19, 1966.
211 The letter, signed “Daniel D. & Floyd S. Hungerford by D. D. H.”, is dated October 27, 1966. For information about osteomyelitis see author Steven Schmitt in The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library (February 2008).
212 Daniel D. Hungerford to “Ed & Helen,” August 26, 1966.
213 Daniel D. Hungerford to “Ed & Helen”, August 26, 1966
214 October 2, 1966. The inside address for Sekella, who was stationed with the army in Germany, was “Some where in Germany or on the European Continent” In November 2008, Sekella wrote the author, “I believe the electro-magnetic model was with Dan on E 3rd St.”
215 Daniel D. Hungerford to Mechanics Illustrated, September 30, 1966. Hungerford's handwriting makes recognition of some of his words difficult.
216 Daniel D. Hungerford to H. Steve Sekella, January 12, 1967. In a postscript, Hungerford noted that he hadn't seen Pete (Oakley) since Sekella went to Europe. Perhaps Hungerford had in mind the “self-moving wheel” project.
217 H. Steven Sekella to Daniel D. Hungerford, no date (probably early 1965).
218 Much of the content of this solicitation document appears to be based on a hand-written “Our Philosophy of Life” dated by Daniel Hungerford May 23, 1962. That statement begins, “Based upon the fact we are here for no reason of our own ...why not make the best of it? And recognizing the destiny of man as involving the conquest of space – occupation of the stars – and the attainment of eternal life – on this side of the grave – let us – strive – together...” A copy of the “Philosophy” was made available to the author by Linda Lathrop.
219 Jon Elan Steen to Geoffrey Stein, July 30, 1992. Stan Hungerford, August 13, 2009, another William Hungerford grandson, told me Daniel Hungerford in the early 1960's was working on his perpetual motion machine.
220 Stan Hungerford to Geoffrey Stein, August 13, 2009.
221 Daniel D. Hungerford to Keith Marvin, June 24–25, 1964.
222 While he grew up in Steuben County, French worked for decades as a grocery store manager in Elmira. He was employed at the Remington-Rand factory during the Second World War. Before he left Chemung County he was a “confectioner”. French was a participant in the Hungerford picketing to preserve the Langdon house in 1939, and he was involved with socialist politics in Chemung County.