The paleobotany collection consists of the NYSM collection and the Binghamton University collection. The NYSM collection focuses on the Gilboa fossil forest and features many fossil stumps, trunk sections, and a crown of Eospermatopteris. It also includes Devonian material from across New York state, and specimens from Pennsylvania and other areas of the U.S.
The Binghamton University component, acquired in 2013, comprises roughly 100 cabinets containing several thousand specimens, the result of 60+ years of collecting in areas across New York state, and Gaspé, Canada. It is an important research collection as many of the fossil localities represented in the material are no longer accessible. The fossils, mostly in the form of compressions and impressions, are greatly enhanced by accompanying section slides, cores, and other research material.
Together, the NYSM collection and the Binghamton University collection comprise the largest collection of Middle Devonian fossil plant material in North America