Higher-level Phylogeny of the Insect Order Hemiptera: Is Auchenorrhyncha Really Paraphyletic?
|Title||Higher-level Phylogeny of the Insect Order Hemiptera: Is Auchenorrhyncha Really Paraphyletic?|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2012|
|Authors||Cryan, JR, Urban, JM|
|Keywords||Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera, Phylogenetics|
The higher-level phylogeny of the order Hemiptera remains a contentious topic in insect systematics. The controversy is chiefly centered on the unresolved question of whether or not the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (including the extant superfamilies Fulgoroidea, Membracoidea, Cicadoidea and Cercopoidea) is a monophyletic lineage. Presented here are the results of a multilocus molecular phylogenetic investigation of relationships among the major hemipteran lineages, designed specifically to address the question of Auchenorrhyncha monophyly in the context of broad taxonomic sampling across Hemiptera. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) were based on DNA nucleotide sequence data from seven gene regions (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, histone H3, histone 2A, wingless, cytochrome c oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4) generated from 86 in-group exemplars representing all major lineages of Hemiptera (plus seven out-group taxa). All combined analyses of these data recover the monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha, and also support the monophyly of each of the following lineages: Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Heteropterodea, Heteroptera, Fulgoroidea, Cicadomorpha, Membracoidea, Cercopoidea and Cicadoidea. Also presented is a review of the major lines of morphological and molecular evidence for and against the monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha.