Mode of Action of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A, A Lethal Control Agent of Dreissenid Mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae)
|Title||Mode of Action of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CL145A, A Lethal Control Agent of Dreissenid Mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae)|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Molloy, DP, Mayer, DA, Giamberini, L, Gaylo, MJ|
|Journal||Journal of Invertebrate Pathology|
|Keywords||Biological control, Biopesticide, Dreissena polymorpha, Hemocyte infiltration, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Zebra mussel|
Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) has demonstrated promise as an efficacious and selective agent for the control of macrofouling Dreissena spp. mussels. Herein, we report trials to investigate the mode of action of this biocontrol agent against Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. Exposure to dead Pf-CL145A cells achieved the same temporal pattern and percentage mussel mortality as did live cells, thereby excluding infection as the possible lethal mode of action. Histological analysis revealed pathologies consistent with the cause of death being intoxicating natural products associated with Pf-CL145A cells. Irrespective of whether the mussels were exposed to live or dead Pf-CL145A cells, examination of tissues from histological sections revealed that: (1) at the end of the 24-h treatment period there was massive hemocyte infiltration into the lumina of both the digestive gland and stomach; and (2) mussel deaths occurred following lysis and necrosis of the digestive gland and sloughing of stomach epithelium. These trials provide strong evidence that the lethal mode of action of Pf-CL145A is intoxication.