Molecular Phylogeny of Cicadomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea, and Membracoidea): Adding Evidence to the Controversy
|Title||Molecular Phylogeny of Cicadomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea, and Membracoidea): Adding Evidence to the Controversy|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Keywords||Cercopoidea (spittlebugs or froghoppers), Cicadoidea (cicadas), hemipteran, Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers), Phylogenetics|
The hemipteran infraorder Cicadomorpha comprises the superfamilies Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittlebugs or froghoppers) and Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers). Earlier attempts to determine relationships among these three monophyletic lineages using either morphological or molecular data suffered from insufficient sampling (taxonomic and data) and problematic tree rooting, leading to discordant results. Presented here are phylogenetic reconstructions within Cicadomorpha based on DNA nucleotide sequence data from multiple genetic markers (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and histone 3) sequenced from representative taxa of Cicadidae, Tettigarctidae, Cercopidae, Aphrophoridae, Clastopteridae, Machaerotidae, Epipygidae, Cicadellidae, Membracidae, Myerslopiidae and Aetalionidae. To test the robustness of the phylogenetic signal, these sequence data were analysed separately and in combination under various alignment parameters using both manual alignment (of both attenuated and full sequences) and alignment via clustal x. The results demonstrate clearly that, despite the alignment method used, basing a phylogeny on a single gene region is often misleading. Analyses of the combination of datasets support the major relationships within Cicadomorpha as (Membracoidea (Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea)). Internal relationships recovered within each superfamily shows evidence for: (1) the placement of Myerslopiidae as the sister group of the remaining Membracoidea; (2) the paraphyly of Cicadellidae; (3) the sister-group relationship between Machaerotidae and Clastopteridae; (4) the monophyly of Cercopidae; (5) the diversification of Epipygidae from within the possibly paraphyletic Aphrophoridae.