New AMS Dates for Verteba Cave and Stable Isotope Evidence of Human Diet in the Holocene Forest-Steppe, Ukraine
|Title||New AMS Dates for Verteba Cave and Stable Isotope Evidence of Human Diet in the Holocene Forest-Steppe, Ukraine|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Ledogar, SH, Karsten, JK, Madden, GD, Schmidt, R, Sokohatskyi, MP, Feranec, RS|
Excavations at several locations in Verteba Cave have uncovered a large amount of human skeletal remains in association with faunal bones and Tripolye material culture. We aim to establish radiocarbon (14C) dates for eight sites and to evaluate whether these deposits are singular events, or slow accumulations over time. 14C measurements, along with stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data from human and faunal remains, were collected from 18 specimens. Stable isotope values were used to evaluate human and animal diet, and whether freshwater reservoir effects offset measured dates. We found diets of the sampled species had limited to no influence from freshwater resources. Human diet appears to be dominated by terrestrial plants and herbivores. Four new sites were identified as Eneolithic. Comparisons of dates from top and bottom strata for two sites (7 and 20) reveal coeval dates, and we suggest that these deposits represent discrete events rather than slow continuous use. Lastly, we identified dates from the Mesolithic (8490±45 BP, 8765±30 BP), Iron Age (2505±20 BP), Slavic state era (1315±25 BP), and Medieval Period (585±15 BP), demonstrating periodic use of the cave by humans prior to and after the Eneolithic.