Trace fossils, depositional context, and paleogeography of the upper Tal Group (upper lower Cambrian), Lesser Himalaya, India: a Gondwanan succession with no affinities to the Avalonia microcontinent – discussion of paper by Singh et al. (2019)
|Title||Trace fossils, depositional context, and paleogeography of the upper Tal Group (upper lower Cambrian), Lesser Himalaya, India: a Gondwanan succession with no affinities to the Avalonia microcontinent – discussion of paper by Singh et al. (2019)|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Landing, E, Geyer, G|
|Keywords||Avalonia, Cambrian, depositional environments, East Gondwana, India, Israel, Lesser Himalaya, paleogeography, sequence stratigraphy, Tal Group, trace fossils, upper Lower Cambrian|
Terminal Ediacaran–late early Cambrian deposition, faunas and passive margin evolution of the north Indian margin are recorded in the Nigali Dhar syncline succession. Restudy of the upper Tal Group (upper lower Cambrian Koti Dhaman Formation, KDF) ichnofauna from the Khud-Drabil section reduces it to 18 confidently named forms. The lower KDF (Lower Quartzite Member) Cruziana-Rusophycus assemblage is in subtidal (not intertidal) sandsheet facies. The overlying black Shale Member (SM) records trans-East Gondwanan deepening, not intertidal facies, in the Palaeolenus Zone. The SM, with low diversity Planolites-Palaeophycus assemblage, is overlain by subtidal (not intertidal) sandsheet facies of the middle KDF (Arkosic Sandstone Member, ASM) with shallow burrowers and furrowers (Gordia marina assemblage, new; Cruziana ichnofacies). KDF faunas with Cruziana and Rusophycus are similar to coeval, shallow marine associations elsewhere in Gondwana and NW Laurentia. Interpretation of a second KDF section 20 km from Khud-Drabil has confused an understanding of Lesser Himalaya geologic evolution as it claims Ordovician Cruziana species in the ASM and an angular SM–ASM unconformity caused by the Cambrian–Ordovician boundary Kurgiakh orogeny. However, upper lower Cambrian microfaunas occur in and above the ASM, while the angular SM–ASM unconformity is consistent with submarine sliding. KDF-type ichnofaunas do not show a tropical location of Avalonia, which has the distinctive lithofacies and biotas of a high-latitude continent unrelated to Gondwana.